Photomicrographs showing (upper) weakly oriented shale with open pore structure (inter-aggregate pores) and (lower) well oriented shale with slit and wedge-shaped pores between the platy clay aggregates.
Simplified sketch of the diffuse double layer (DDL) associated with the surface of clay minerals in shale pores indicating pressure generated by forced overlap of the DDL.
TEMs of ball clays from (a) Devon and (b) Ukraine showing thick, chunky morphology of kaolinite and thin stubby, lath-like form of illite.
SEMs of ball clays from (a) Devon and (b) Ukraine showing an open randomly oriented fabric with many voids.
Problem shale classification according their characteristics and clay mineralogy (after O’Brien & Chenevert, 1973).
Quantitative clay mineral composition (%) and H2O content of specific North American problem shales (after O’Brien & Chenevert, 1973)
Swelling and dispersion behaviour of Class 2 shale in various fluids (after O’Brien & Chenevert, 1973).
Swelling behaviour of Class 3 shale with polymer/salt solutions (after O’Brien & Chenevert, 1973).
Swelling indices of clay minerals (after Bol et al., 1994).
Mineralogy of drilled shale formations where only Shale “A” is unstable (after Santarelli & Carminati, 1995).
Diffusion Rates (1×10-10 m2.s-1) from pore water and diluted pore water (after Ballard et al., 1994).
Partition (wt.%) of water over different types of pores in saturated, powdered, expandable clays where Mg2+ is the exchangeable cation (after Touret et al., 1990).
Clay mineral content (%) in bulk shales and accretion to a steel surface after 5 and 10 minutes (after Cliffe & Young, 2008).
Liquid limits, plastic limits and plasticity indices of individual clay minerals (after Mitchell, 1993).
Quantitative normative mineralogy of ball clays from England, China and Ukraine (after Shen, 1993).
Vol. 10 (1975) through current issue
Current Issue: Volume 52, Number 1
Current issue content
Archive of all content
Please log in to add an alert for this article.
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Clay Minerals.
NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.